The MAX31820 ambient temperature sensor provides 9-bit to 12-bit Celsius temperature measurements with ±0.5°C accuracy over a +10°C to +45°C temperature range. Over its entire -55°C to +125°C operating range, the device has ±2.0°C accuracy.
The device communicates over a one-wire bus that, by definition, requires only one data line (and ground) for communication with a central microprocessor. In addition, the device can derive power directly from the data line, eliminating the need for an external power supply. Requiring so few pins enables the device to be placed in a 3-pin TO-92 package. The form factor of this package allows the device to be placed above the board and thus measure the ambient temperature of a system, as opposed to the board temperature that a surface-mount package would measure.
Each MAX31820 has a unique 64-bit serial code, which allows multiple MAX31820 devices to function on the same one-wire bus. Therefore, it is simple to use one microprocessor to control many devices distributed over a large area.
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The MAX31820 is code compatible with the DS18B20 sensor. Keep in mind that the MAX31820 is a 3.3 volt part where the DS18B20 is a 5 volt part. You can use both on the same bus at 3.3 volts though.
You can find a good tutorial for the DS18B20 and MAX31820 at the link below. * How to measure temperature with your Arduino and a DS18B20
bildr.org also has a good tutorial at this link.
If it requires power, you need to know how much, what all the pins do, and how to hook it up. You may need to reference datasheets, schematics, and know the ins and outs of electronics.
Skill Level: Rookie - You may be required to know a bit more about the component, such as orientation, or how to hook it up, in addition to power requirements. You will need to understand polarized components.
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There are Arduino libraries that make this almost trivial to talk to (see my note in the Comments section for links). So far, it's working great for my work-in-progress water tank depth project.
I like this part because it's designed for situations where there is a long cable between the processor and the temperature sensor. Think home temperature monitoring and control, gardening, monitoring equipment for overheating, etc.